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Jamaica (Wikipedia)

Motto: "Out of Many, One People"
Location of Jamaica
Location of Jamaica
and largest city
17°59′N 76°48′W / 17.983°N 76.800°W / 17.983; -76.800
Official languages English
National language Jamaican Patois (de facto)
Ethnic groups (2011)
Demonym Jamaican
Government Unitary parliamentary representative democracy under constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Patrick Allen
Andrew Holness
Bryan Sykes
Legislature Parliament
House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Granted
6 August 1962
• Total
10,991 km2 (4,244 sq mi) (160th)
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
• Density
266/km2 (688.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$26.446 billion (2017)
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$14.556 billion
• Per capita
Gini (2004) 45.5
medium · 84th[7]
HDI (2017) Increase 0.732
high · 97th
Currency Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Time zone UTC-5
Driving side left
Calling code +1-876
+1-658 (Overlay of 876; active in November 2018)
ISO 3166 code JM
Internet TLD .jm
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Jamaica (/əˈmkə/ (About this sound listen)) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic).

Previously inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers. The island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy highly dependent on African slaves. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.

With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas (after the United States and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans mainly have African ancestry, with significant European, Chinese, Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as the head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica from March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.

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